Virtual Library

Our research repositories present a collection of open-source resources that showcase research and analysis that has directly influenced our initiatives. Non-IST publications are copyrighted by external authors not affiliated with IST.

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Reports

Combatting Ransomware: A Comprehensive Framework for Action: Key Recommendations from the Ransomware Task Force

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Reports

Future Digital Threats to Democracy – Trends and Drivers

Vera Zakem, Alexa Wehsener, Nina M. Miller

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Reports

Hotline Between Two Koreas: Status, Limitations and Future Tasks

Dr. Chung-in Moon and Boo Seung-Chan

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Reports

Building Communications Norms Across Nuclear C2

Dr. Salma Shaheen

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Reports

Nuclear Hotlines: Origins, Evolution, Applications

Steven E. Miller

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Reports

Formals Methods for NC3 Systems

Adam Wick

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Reports

Pay Attention

Alexa Wehsener

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We also welcome additional suggestions from readers, and will consider adding further resources as so much of our work has come through crowd-sourced collaboration already. If, for any chance you are an author whose work is listed here and you do not wish it to be listed in our repository, please, let us know.

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Virtual Event and Live Q&A with Mr. Nand Mulchandani, Acting Director of the U.S. Department of Defense Joint Artificial Intelligence Center

Law, Targeting and Nuclear Weapons

William H. Boothby

SUMMARY

The prohibition of the threat or use of force in article 2(4) of the UN Charter applies to nuclear weapons as it does to conventional uses of force. Likewise, an armed attack giving rise to the right to use force in self defence might take the form of a nuclear strike. It is the scale and effects of the nuclear strike that will determine its classification as a use of force and armed attack. The principle of distinction and linked rules of the law of targeting also apply to nuclear operations. The legal position differs as between States that are or are not party to API and as between such States party that did or did not make nuclear statements when ratifying the treaty. For all States, there is an obligation to take constant care in nuclear operations to spare civilians and civilian objects. More detailed precautionary rules apply to all States with certain additional rules only applying to States that are party to API and that made no nuclear statement. States adopt numerous measures to disseminate this body of law and international engagement seems to be the best approach for promoting international compliance.

In this essay, Bill Boothby observes: “For all States, there is an obligation to take constant care in nuclear operations to spare civilians and civilian objects. More detailed precautionary rules apply to all States with certain additional rules only applying to States that are party to API and that made no nuclear statement. States adopt numerous measures to disseminate this body of law. International engagement seems to be the best approach for promoting international compliance.”

This paper is accompanied by a Fourth Leg podcast: Are All Legal Bets Off

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