Virtual Library

Our virtual library is an online repository of all of the reports, papers, and briefings that IST has produced, as well as works that have influenced our thinking.

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Reports

Unlocking U.S. Technological Competitiveness: Proposing Solutions to Public-Private Misalignments

Ben Purser, Pavneet Singh

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Articles

The Phone-a-Friend Option: Use Cases for a U.S.-U.K.-French Crisis Communication Channel

Daniil Zhukov

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Articles

China: Nuclear Crisis Communications and Risk Reduction

Dr. Tong Zhao

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Articles

Use-Cases of Resilient Nuclear Crisis Communications: A View from Russia

Dmitry Stefanovich

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Articles

Pakistan: Mitigating Nuclear Risks Through Crisis Communications

Dr. Rabia Akhtar

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Articles

Resilient Nuclear Crisis Communications: India’s Experience

Dr. Manpreet Sethi

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Reports

A Lifecycle Approach to AI Risk Reduction: Tackling the Risk of Malicious Use Amid Implications of Openness

Louie Kangeter

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We also welcome additional suggestions from readers, and will consider adding further resources as so much of our work has come through crowd-sourced collaboration already. If, for any chance you are an author whose work is listed here and you do not wish it to be listed in our repository, please, let us know.

SUBMIT CONTENT

Israel’s NC3 Profile: Opaque Nuclear Governance

Avner Cohen

SUMMARY

Israel is a unique case among the current nine nuclear weapons states. It is the sixth state—and the first and only one in the Middle East—to develop, acquire, and possess nuclear weapons. And yet, to this day, it has never openly acknowledged its nuclear weapons-state status. Nor has the outside world, friends or foes alike, pressed Israel to come clean publicly about its nuclear status.

As a long-held policy, Israel neither confirms nor denies possession of nuclear weapons. Instead, ever since the mid-1960s—a time in which Israel did not yet possess nuclear weapons capability—Israel has declared, first privately and then publicly, that “it will not be the first to introduce nuclear weapons to the Middle East.” This formula became the essence of Israel’s policy of nuclear opacity.

In this essay, Avner Cohen traces and exposes Israel’s two most fundamental principles of the Israeli NC3 thinking: first, insisting on a strict physical and organizational separation between nuclear (e.g., pits) and non-nuclear assets (e.g., military delivery platform); second, creating a two-tier governance architecture at various levels.

This paper is accompanied by a Fourth Leg podcast: Elements of Caution and Prudence.

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